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Important characteristics of Information

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Information is significant statistics which must be blanketed with a view to defend the privateness, security, identification of an company or someone or a nation. An statistics is known as precious due to few traits. The foremost traits which make an statistics precious are
1. Confidentiality
Confidentiality guarantees that an Information is on the market to handiest a certified user. The foremost pupose of confidentiality is to defend the touchy statistics from attaining the incorrect hands.It is used to preserve the privateness of the humans. Encryption is a great instance of confidentiality.
2. Availability
Information ought to be to be had to an approved man or woman while it’s far asked for. It is the assure of get entry to to the approved man or woman to statistics. Keeping all of the hardware and software program updated and maintaining again up, taking right healing measures will make sure availability of statistics.
3. Integrity
Integrity continues the correctness or accuracy of the statistics at the same time as the statistics is in transit, garage or processing. It is the assure that statistics is accept as true with worth and now no longer tampered. This characteristic guarantees that an unauthorised man or woman will now no longer be capable of alter the statistics.
RSA virtual signature, SHA1 hash codes are proper examples.
4. Authentication
It is verifying whether or not the user, statistics, transactions worried is authentic. This characteristic guarantees that handiest authentic or proper humans are given get entry to to the statistics. Login mechanisms may be used to affirm the authenticity of users
5. Non-Repuditiation
This is a belongings of statistics that is used to holds someone chargeable for the statistics he despatched or received. In future, he can not deny his function in sending or receiving the statistics.

Phases of Hacking

1. Reconnaissance:

This is step one of Hacking. It is likewise referred to as as Footprinting and statistics amassing Phase. This is the preparatory segment in which we accumulate as a good deal statistics as feasible approximately the goal. We normally accumulate statistics approximately 3 groups,

  1. Network
  2. Host
  3. People involved

There are varieties of Footprinting:

  • Active: Directly interacting with the goal to collect statistics approximately the goal. Eg Using Nmap device to experiment the goal
  • Passive: Trying to accumulate the statistics approximately the goal with out without delay having access to the goal. This entails amassing statistics from social media, public web sites etc.

2. Scanning:

Three varieties of scanning are involved:

  • Port scanning: This segment entails scanning the goal for the statistics like open ports, Live systems, diverse offerings jogging at the host.
  • Vulnerability Scanning: Checking the goal for weaknesses or vulnerabilities which may be exploited. Usually finished with assist of automatic gear
  • Network Mapping: Finding the topology of community, routers, firewalls servers if any, and host statistics and drawing a community diagram with the to be had statistics. This map might also additionally function a treasured piece of statistics at some point of the haking process.

3. Gaining Access:

This segment is in which an attacker breaks into the gadget/community the usage of diverse gear or methods. After moving into a gadget, he has to boom his privilege to administrator stage so he can set up an software he desires or alter records or conceal records.

4. Maintaining Access:

Hacker might also additionally simply hack the gadget to reveal it become prone or he may be so mischievous that he desires to keep or persist the relationship withinside the history with out the understanding of the user. This may be finished the usage of Trojans, Rootkits or different malicious files. The goal is to keep the get entry to to the goal till he finishes the obligations he deliberate to perform in that goal.

5. Clearing Track:

No thief desires to get caught. An clever hacker constantly clears all proof in order that withinside the later factor of time, no person will discover any lines main to him. This entails editing/corrupting/deleting the values of Logs, editing registry values and uninstalling all programs he used and deleting all folders he created.